The utility model relates to a lathe provided with a protective cover and relates to a machine tool for the molding cutting processing. The purpose of the utility model is to solve the problems that when a metal machine tool is used for processing a ceramic workpiece, the service life is short, the output rate is low, the environment is badly polluted, etc. The lathe comprises a lathe body (1), a main motor (4) connected with a main shaft (7) in a transmission mode, a tailstock guide rail (12) connected with a tailstock (13) in a sliding mode along the direction of the main shaft, and a longitudinal feed mechanism (14) connected with a lateral feed mechanism (20) and a tool carrier (26). A protective cover of the longitudinal feed mechanism of the lathe is provided with an accordion type dust-proof cover (27), a dust-proof cover (28), a scraping plate (32) and sealing strips (31, 34). A protective cover of the lateral feed mechanism is provided with an accordion type dust-proof cover (35), a dust-proof cover (36), a scraping plate (37) and a sealing strip (39). A portal sealing plate (45) of the lathe is provided with a scraping plate and a sealing strip (47). The lathe is provided with a lathe integral cover (40) and a ventilation device. The utility model is suitable for lathing a metal workpiece, and especially, a ceramic workpiece.